Why Study Foreign Policy Comparatively?
What is Foreign Policy?
Foreign Policy is the use of political influence in order to induce other states to exercise their law-making power in a manner desired by the states concerned. It is an interaction between forces originating outside the country’s borders and those working within them.
Describe Prof. F. S. Northedge’s Statement by steps?
- Foreign policy of a state is concerned with the behaviour of a state towards other states.
- It refers to the ways in which the central governments of sovereign states relate to each other.
- Through its foreign policy it endeavours to persuade others in accordance with one’s own ends.
- It is primarily in proportion to its national power that its persuasive power is effective in this regard. However, even a powerful state cannot afford to enjoy a solo flight in this regard.
- It has to take into account, not only its own objectives and interests, aspirations and problems, but also those of other states.
- This process involves intricate processes of diplomacy short of war.
- Moreover, a state while implementing its foreign policy cannot afford to ignore the rules of International law and canons of international morality.
Describe Padelford and Lincolin’s statement by steps?
Through foreign policy a state seeks to achieve a variety of objectives.
- Political independence and territorial integrity, economic well being and, prestige and status of a nation. They have been classified into short range, middle range and long-range objectives.
- Foreign Policy Analysis is the systematic study of and research into the processes and theories of foreign policy. It is that branch of political science deals with the study of and research into the processes and theories of foreign policy.
- Foreign Policy Analysis involves the study of how a state makes foreign policy.
- Foreign Policy Analysis also draws upon the study of diplomacy, war, intergovernmental organisations, and economic sanctions.
- In academia, foreign policy analysis is most commonly taught within the disciplines of Political Science or Political Studies, and International Relations.
Describe Stages in foreign policy decision making?
The making of foreign policy involves a number of stages:
Assessment of the international and domestic political environment :-
Foreign policy is made and implemented within an international and domestic political context. For example, a state may need to respond to an international crisis. Pakistan has to cultivate and maintain good relations with the members of OIC. It has to support causes of the Umma because of the dictates of the public opinion.
Goal setting :-
A state has multiple foreign policy goals. In addition, foreign policy goals may conflict, which will require the state to prioritise. In the post. As Pakistan’s and for that matter any state’s survival tops the agenda of objectives, so it has to side with the US in the wake of Post 9/11 and the latter’s decision to be down with the Taliban.
Determination of policy options :-
A state must then determine what policy options are available to meet the goal or goals set in light of the political environment. This will involve an assessment of the state’s capacity to implement policy options and an assessment of the consequences of each policy option. Pakistan’s decision of entering into Western sponsored alliances in the 50s and taking a U Turn in the wake of 9/11 were in fact some of the policy options that Pakistani Policy makers opted for.
Formal decision making action :-
A formal foreign policy decision will be taken at some level within a government. Common governmental actors or institutions which make foreign policy decisions include: the head of state (such as a president) or head of government (such as a prime minister), cabinet, or minister.
Implementation of chosen policy option :-
Foreign policy is most commonly implemented by specialist foreign policy arms of the state bureaucracy, such as a Ministry of Foreign Affairs or State Department. Other departments may also have a role in implementing foreign policy, such as departments for: trade, defence, and aid.