Monroe Doctrine (1823)
The Monroe Doctrine was a regular annual address of the president to the nation delivered on 2nd Dec, 1823 which ultimately became the pillar of US foreign policy in the nineteenth century, but its importance in the twentieth century is disputed. On the one hand, it laid the grounds for American expansion in the Western Hemisphere and provided a framework of reciprocal non-interference in transatlantic relations. Therefore, a reconsideration of its impact is relevant to the discussion of the tension between internationalism and isolationism. An assessment of the relevance of the Monroe Doctrine in twentieth-century US diplomacy must take into account that
- It outlined a regionalist view of world affairs
- It expressed widespread notions of American culture, history, and national identity.
The period of 1817 to 1829 can be divided in two phases. The 1st period belongs to James Monroe who brought peace and security in the country therefore his period is known as era of good feelings. The period of John Quincy Adams was considered to be the period of hardship and difficulties. Thus it was known as era of hard feelings
- 1817-1824: Era of Good Feelings
- 1825- 1829 Era of Hard feelings
The Principles of Monroe Doctrine:
- Self Defense
- American Nationalism and Self-Awareness
Main Points in Doctrine
- American continent cannot be considered as subject for further colonization by European powers.
- European political system is different than that of Americans and any attempt to extend to this system to American hemisphere will be considered dangerous to our peace and security.
- America will not interfere in European war and their politics neither we do have any aim to oppress them.
Use of Monroe Doctrine
- Objection to British Alliance in Texas in 1836
- 1845 Westward expansion during the presidency of James Polie
- 1863 French empire in Mexico was seriously taken by Americans as violation of Monroe Doctrine
- President Theodore Roosevelt declared American right to intervene in continent.
The effects of the Monroe Doctrine on Europe were mixed. While Spain did not attempt to restore empire in Latin America, Britain continued as a dominant trade power there. Some Latin American nations resented the implications that the United States was somehow responsible for their well-being. It was not until the 1880s and the development of the U.S. Navy that the U.S. actually had the military power to enforce the Monroe Doctrine.
Questions on Monroe Doctrine
- Monroe Doctrine was a Charter of America‘s Isolation. Still what circumstances compelled U.S.A. to plunge into the World Wars. (CSS 2000)
- What is Monroe Doctrine? On what occasions has it been enforced and with what results? (CSS 2005)
- Note: The Monroe Doctrine (CSS 2001), (CSS 2007)