How Leaders Make Sense of the World
Differentiate Between Ontology and Epistemology.
Describe several ways to recognize Complex System.
- Hierarchy of parts in wholes that are parts of greater wholes.
- High degree of various links between the parts.
High degree of interdependence between the parts.
Constant change and emergence over time, also called evolution.
The parts always change or adapt to surroundings.
The parts have limited input from the whole of the surrounding system.
Describe the concept of the Leadership and Agents.
Describe the complexity of the leadership.
Complexity science becomes a way of thinking about life in organisations that focuses attention on how agents cope with the unknown as they perpetually create organisational futures together. This has come to be known as the complex adaptive systems approach to organisational and leadership studies, highlighting the importance and meaning of phenomena of complexity in organizations and their context.
Scholars within the complexity sciences have promoted ‘substitutes’ to leadership by minimising the traditional leadership role in order to make way for self-organising or enabling principles. To date, findings from complexity approaches have not been widely accepted in organisation and leadership studies. A chief difficulty with the complexity theory view involves the role of structure within the organisation. Mainstream leadership theorists will not accept the notion of influence or coordination
yielding nonlinear and essentially unpredictable future conditions. Essentially, a lot of them see leadership as a steering mechanism yielding predictable outcomes.
What are the principles of interacting agents?
- Order is emergent as opposed to predetermined,
- The system’s history is irreversible,
- The system’s future is often unpredictable.
What are the characteristics of complex adaptive systems according to Plowman?
- Made up of many agents who act and interact with each other in unpredictable ways.
- Sensitive to changes in initial conditions.
- Adjust their behaviour to their environment in unpredictable ways.
- Oscillate between stability and instability.
- Produce emergent actions when approaching disequilibrium.
What are the effects of the leadership?
The future is also present in the form of the agent’s expectations, ambitions, hope, dreams, and so on. It
too forms the basis of action in the present. The present, therefore, has a circular time structure that arises because agents have the capacity to know what they are doing. This epistemology is in contrast to classical organisational science where the future is separated and presented in the form of visions, goals, values, strategies, and plans, so distracting attention from the present and reducing the future to simple ‘bulletpoints’ that can be manipulated to determine the present.
Leadership is seen as a relationship that emerges in the interaction between agents. Such leadership may also not be allocated to a single agent, but be taken up by different agents in a group, initiated at their own discretion. Leadership occurs through interaction, and by enabling rather than controlling the future. Agents in organizations interact locally with each other on the basis of their identity. They do so without knowing in advance how the whole system is going to evolve, or even understanding its current situation as a whole.
Role of Leadership
Leadership influencing in such systems must therefore be directed towards micro-level interactions between agents, and not to macro-level interventions. Interactions are based on ongoing receptiveness rather than on predetermined perceptions about the future. Agents actively rely on each other to create conditions under which mutual influence is possible. The role of the leading agent emerges, and is continually iterated in processes of recognition. What emerges, and is continually iterated is diversity of identities; including that of leading agents. Hence, agent identity both shapes and is shaped by social exchanges with others because identity emerges in relationships. The role of the leading agent is co-created by all other agents in processes of social interaction. In such processes of interaction, agents interpret what it means to be a leader and a group.
What is Power?
Power is the capability of the individual ‘to make a difference’ to a pre-existing state of affairs. Although the conception of power as a capacity resting in a single individual is widely employed in political, sociological, organisational, and leadership studies, there are other views.
Power is not only as a capacity but also as a right to act; with both capacity and right being seen to rest on the consent of those over whom power is exercised.