Important International Relations for Final Exams

Important International Relations for Final Exams

Important International Relations for Final Exams

Important International Relations for Final Exams

Section A

1.) Explaining a particular event by analyzing the internal political bureaucracy of states would be considered which level of analysis?

a. Corporate
b. Domestic
c. Individual
d. Global


2.) Of the nine factors used by Hafeznia, Zarghani, Ahmadipor, and Eftekhari to measure a nation’s power, in which one is the United States NOT #1?

a. Military
b. Economic
c. Political
d. Scientific and technological


3.) Structural realism, or neorealism, is an example of a theory at what level of analysis?

a. Domestic
b. Realistic
c. Global
d. Mixed actor


4.) The issue of climate change is an example of an issue that challenges what fundamental concept in international relations?

a. Constructivism
b. Security dilemma
c. Resource curse
d. State sovereignty


5.) The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is an example of what kind of relationship between states?

a. Hegemony
b. Unilateral
c. Alliance
d. Security dilemma


Section B

6.) The Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 is widely used to mark the emergence of what important concept in international relations?

a. Paper currency
b. State sovereignty
c. Collective security
d. Idealism

7.) What theory accounts for the genocide in Hitler’s Germany, Bosnia, and China under Japanese occupation?

a. Nationalism
b. Fundamentalism
c. Sovereignty
d. Social Darwinism


8.) Which of the following is NOT a direct component of national power?

a. Membership of the U.N. Security Council
b. Geography
c. Military power
d. Natural resources


9.) Explaining the conflict in the Middle East as a clash between identities of the Arab and Israeli peoples would be an example of what kind of analysis?

a. Constructivist
b. Classical realist
c. Liberalist
d. Neo-functionalist


10.) From a realist perspective, who are the primary actors in international relations?

a. States
b. Realists
c. Military
d. Terrorist organizations


Section C

11.) In setting up the international economy after World War II (Breton Woods system), American leadership is often used as an example of what important concept?

a. Economic interdependence
b. International regimes
c. Hegemonic stability
d. Victor’s justice


12.) Kenneth Waltz would agree with which of the following statements?

a. The current unipolar distribution of power is stable.
b. The bipolar distribution of power is most stable in the international system.
c. The international system is characterized by hierarchy.
d. Identity is the most important factor in international relations.


13.) The phrase “anarchy is what states make of it” refers to which of the following?


a. It refers to the realist principle that anarchy is akin to a state of nature.
b. It refers to the constructivist principle that anarchy is not inherently competitive; anarchy depends on how states perceive it.
c. It refers to the constructivist principle that anarchy does not exist in international relations.
d. It refers to the idea that anarchy does not mean chaos; it simply means there is no overarching world government.


14.) Which major theoretical school would agree that cooperation is possible in international relations but only in areas that DO NOT significantly shape world events?


a. Constructivism
b. Liberalism
c. Neorealism
d. None of the above


15.) Which of the following is NOT required to be considered a “legitimate” international organization?


a. State consent
b. Democratic principles
c. Monopoly over the legitimate use of force
d. Ability to issue rules and attach consequences


Section D


16.) Which of the following statements is untrue about realism?


a. Realism believes that cooperation is impossible in international relations.
b. Realism as a school of thought has many theoretical variants.
c. Classical realism arose in the post-World War II era as a counter to Wilsonian idealism.
d. Neorealism believes that the pursuit of security is the goal of every state.


17.) Which statement would Marxists disagree with?


a. Capitalism is an efficient economic system.
b. Communism is a more progressive stage of history than capitalism.
c. Class-based interests are not important in international relations.
d. Capitalism is unavoidably exploitative and oppressive.


18.) According to Ambassador Jack Pritchard, at the beginning of the 21st century, which Asian country is the most important to the United States?


a. China
b. Japan
c. South Korea (ROK)
d. Taiwan


19.) According to Professor Sheehan in his lecture on the end of the Cold War, where did the Cold War start, and where did it end?


a. It began and ended in Russia.
b. It began and ended in Germany.
c. It began in Germany and ended in Russia.
d. It began in Russia and ended in Germany.


20.) According to Professor Sheehan in his lecture on the end of the Cold War, what convinced Gorbachev to change Russia’s foreign policy?


a. Democracy
b. Religion
c. Prosperity
d. All of the above


Section E

21.) Contrary to the perception that the Middle East is made up of Arab states, which one of the following is NOT one of the “movers and shakers” in today’s Middle East?


a. Iran
b. Turkey
c. Saudi Arabia
d. Israel


22.) In April 2010, President Barack Obama travelled to Prague to sign what historic document?


a. President Obama signed a document to accept NATO membership for the Czech Republic.
b. President Obama established a new international financial institution to combat the global recession.
c. President Obama signed the New START Treaty with Russia.
d. President Obama signed a resolution in support of giving Germany a seat on the U.N. Security Council.


23.) In the book Anti-Americanisms in World Politics, editors Robert O. Keohane and Peter J. Katzenstein conclude that in America, which of the following is a function of “polyvalence?”

Choose one answer.

a. Polyvalence explains why there is such a range of anti-American and pro-American sentiments across the world and even within the same population of people.
b. Polyvalence explains the strength of America’s multicultural tradition.
c. Polyvalence explains how the U.S. can overcome anti-American sentiments in different parts of the world.
d. Polyvalence explains why the U.S. acted unilaterally in Iraq.


24.) In the video on the US-Korean Alliance, what word characterizes Korean positions on food aid to North Korea, security, and the FTA with the US?


a. Balance
b. Defensive
c. Anti-American
d. Fearful


25.) The Iraq War is often cited as an example of what kind of U.S. action?


a. Multilateral
b. Bilateral
c. Unilateral
d. Trilateral


Section F


26.) The New START treaty signed in 2010 focuses on what important security issue?


a. Money laundering by terrorist organizations
b. Reduction of U.S. and Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles
c. The establishment of an avian flu monitoring system
d. Illegal trade of narcotics and small arms


27.) The Six-Party talks are centered on what issue in Asia?


a. Avian flu
b. Creation of an Asian monetary fund
c. North Korea’s nuclear weapons program
d. U.S. military basing rights


28.) What is the primary reason for the controversy surrounding the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s (NATO) enlargement?


a. NATO overruns its budget every year, and enlargement will only make matters worse.
b. The most powerful countries in NATO do not want to see their influence diluted by larger membership.
c. NATO was a Cold War-era alliance organization in opposition to the Soviet Union; NATO enlargement in the post-Cold War era seems outdated and unnecessarily provocative toward Russia.
d. NATO overlaps too much with the European Union.


29.) What trends in South Africa does the Lyman testimony identify as worrisome?


a. Nationalizing industry
b. Personal scandals
c. Appointed judiciary
d. All of the above



30.) Which country in Northeast Asia is seen to have the most political influence over North Korea?


a. China
b. South Korea
c. Japan
d. Taiwan


Section G


31.) Which of the following is true of the term soft balancing?


a. The states that are soft balancing are typically small, weak countries.
b. The targets of the soft balancing do not realize that balancing is occurring.
c. Soft balancing involves signing non-binding agreements, which can easily be broken by either state.
d. Soft balancing refers to using nonmilitary tools to delay, frustrate, or undermine military, economic, or diplomatic efforts.


32.) Why is US leverage declining in Africa?


a. Feelings of anti-Americanism are spreading in Africa.
b. The need for aid is greatest in countries with a democratic deficit
c. There has been a decline in U.S. aid commitments in Africa.
d. All of the above


33.) President Woodrow Wilson is commonly associated with which school of international relations thought?


a. Neoliberalism
b. Idealism/Liberalism
c. Classical Realism
d. Functionalism


34.) The German military strategist Carl von Clausewitz famously remarked that “war is the continuation of politics by other means.” This sentiment is consistent with which school of thought in international relations?


a. Realism
b. Liberalism
c. Hegemonic Stability Theory
d. Neo-functionalism


35.) The thinkers Thomas Aquinas and Hugo Grotius, as well as Michael Walzer, have all contributed significantly to what body of theoretical literature?


a. Neorealism
b. Just War Theory
c. Bargaining Model of War
d. Idealism/Liberalism


Section H

36.) Two states are at war and negotiate a peace agreement. Then, a new leader emerges in one of the states and declares that the peace agreement is invalid. War breaks out again shortly afterward. This cycle is an example of what theory?


a. Domestic Causes of War
b. Bargaining Model of War
c. Audience Costs
d. Democratic Peace Theory


37.) What is the primary difference between realism and idealism/liberalism, regarding the role of war in international relations?


a. There is no significant difference in the way the two theories view war in international relations.
b. Realism justifies war for security purposes; idealism justifies war for humanitarian reasons.
c. Idealism believes that war is a normal and necessary part of international relations; realism believes that war is a failure of diplomacy and cooperation.
d. Realism believes that war is a normal and necessary part of international relations; idealism believes that war is a failure of diplomacy and cooperation.


38.) Which of the following is NOT a major impact on security for states battling the HIV epidemic?

Choose one answer.

a. HIV has killed a significant percentage of the adult population, resulting in orphans who are easily recruited into becoming child soldiers.
b. HIV has killed a significant percentage of the adult population, resulting in a smaller population to contribute to the economy and participate in governance of state.
c. HIV can contribute to state instability and create an environment conducive for illegal activity and terrorism.
d. HIV affects the economy and tourism as visitors do not want to visit a country with a high incidence of the disease.


39.) Why is climate change considered a security issue?


a. Climate change could lead to the forced migration of large populations of people, which could also potentially trigger food and energy shortages.
b. Climate change may cause the states that suffer the most to go to war against those that suffer the least.
c. Climate change is not considered a major problem for state security.
d. Climate change is specifically covered in just war theory as a threat to security.


40.) What are the two primary categories of arms control?


a. Small arms and conventional
b. Conventional and nuclear
c. Missiles and warheads
d. Nuclear and fissile


Section I

41.) What is the primary difference between the Limited Test Ban Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty?


a. The Limited Test Ban Treaty has only been signed by the U.S. and the Soviet Union, whereas the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty is open to all countries for signature.
b. The Limited Test Ban Treaty expired in 2010, and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty is meant to replace it.
c. The Limited Test Ban Treaty only covers certain types of biological and chemical weapons testing, whereas the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty also covers nuclear weapons testing.
d. The Limited Test Ban Treaty only prohibits certain types of nuclear weapons testing (such as those conducted underwater or in the atmosphere), while the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty prohibits all types of nuclear weapons testing.


42.) Which country is the first and only country to ever withdraw from the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT)?


a. North Korea
b. Iran
c. India
d. Israel


43.) Which of the following is NOT usually considered a Weapon of Mass Destruction (WMD)?


a. Cyber attacks
b. Biological weapons
c. Nuclear weapons
d. Chemical weapons


44.) Which of the following treaties or conventions has the U.S. NOT fully ratified and is therefore not bound by?


a. Chemical Weapons Convention
b. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
c. Biological Weapons Convention
d. Limited Test Ban Treaty


45.) Which organization is responsible for verification of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT)?


a. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
b. U.N. Security Council
c. U.S. National Nuclear Security Agency
d. U.N. General Assembly


Section J

46.) According to international theorist Robert O. Keohane, international cooperation is the result of which of the following?


a. Harmony
b. Conflict
c. Popular support
d. Leadership


47.) During the 2010 High-level Segment of the UN Economic and Social Council, what was the theme?


a. Global public health
b. Sustainable development
c. Gender Equality and women empowerment
d. Poverty eradication


48.) Historically, developing countries have had difficulty passing legally-binding resolutions in their favor in the U.N. Why is this?


a. The General Assembly has too many countries in it, which makes it difficult to reach a consensus.
b. Developing countries are not permanently represented on the U.N. Security Council, which is the only body in the U.N. that creates legally-binding resolutions.
c. Developing countries do not agree on what are the most important priorities on which to pass resolutions.
d. Developing countries are outnumbered by developed countries in the General Assembly, and thus their resolutions always fail, because developed countries never vote in their favor.


49.) If institutionalist theory in international relations is logically and historically unfounded, why is it so popular?


a. It reflects American values.
b. It is not realism.
c. It is optimistic.
d. All of the above


50.) In the wake of the 1997 Asian financial crisis, countries in Asia joined together and created the Chiang Mai Initiative, which provides short-term liquidity for states that may be undergoing exchange rate or other currency pressures. Which institution would provide a similar function?


a. International Monetary Fund (IMF)
b. World Trade Organization (WTO)
c. World Bank
d. U.N. Development Program

Section K

51.) International relations theorist, Robert O. Keohane, compares international trade with which of the following?


a. A boxing match
b. A dating service
c. A used car dealer
d. None of the above


52.) President of the International Court of Justice has many responsibilities. Which of the following is NOT one of the president’s responsibilities?


a. Deciding cases
b. Setting the budget
c. Solemn sitting
d. Selecting a replacement


53.) State A is a developing country and needs a loan for a large dam construction project. Which international institution would be best suited to assist State A?


a. International Monetary Fund (IMF)
b. G-20
c. World Bank
d. World Trade Organization


54.) State A is experiencing a currency crisis and requires assistance in exchange rate stabilization. Which international institution is best suited to assist State A?


a. World Bank
b. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
c. G-20
d. International Monetary Fund (IMF)


55.) The 1950s and 1960s witnessed massive de-colonization throughout the world. Some former colonies were deemed in need of “transitional” governance as they gained independence. What role did the U.N. play in this?


a. The U.N. had a Trusteeship System that oversaw the transition of these nascent countries to full-fledged independence.
b. The U.N. protested the system of transitional governance and worked to eliminate it completely.
c. The U.N. played no role in this effort.
d. The U.N. granted these countries immediate entry into the General Assembly.


Section L


56.) The Rome Statute (1998) created what important international body?


a. World Trade Organization
b. International Criminal Court
c. International Court of Justice
d. Asian Development Bank


57.) What is the principle behind the “Annan Doctrine?”


a. Respect for state sovereignty is not a reason to avoid intervening on humanitarian grounds.
b. Developing countries have a right to share in global prosperity.
c. Equality before the law is the most important principle guiding the U.N.
d. The meaning of security has evolved to include other forms of security, such as access to clean water and food, climate change, and energy.


58.) What is the structure of the U.N. Security Council?

Choose one answer.

a. Five permanent members: Russia, U.S., China, France, and Britain
b. Seven permanent members with ten elected members
c. Five permanent members with ten elected members
d. Seven permanent members: Russia, U.S., China, France, Britain, Germany, and Japan


59.) Which international court is part of the U.N. system, where only states (not individuals) may appear before it?

Choose one answer.

a. International Court of Justice
b. North American Supreme Court
c. International Criminal Court
d. Hall of Justice


60.) Which of the following is false in regards to U.N. Security Council sanctions?


a. They are legally binding.
b. They must pass unanimously in the 15-member Security Council.
c. They must pass without a veto from the permanent five members of the Security Council.
d. They are mandatory; for example, all states in the U.N. must observe them.


Section M


61.) Which of the following is NOT a commonly cited reason in making the case for U.N. reform?


a. The Security Council membership is frozen in post-World War II time and does not reflect new and important global powers, such as Germany, Japan, and India.
b. The U.N. has lost much credibility, since the U.S. war against Iraq; lack of U.N. approval did not stop the U.S. from invading Iraq.
c. The U.N. headquarters in New York City makes the U.N. too closely aligned to U.S. interests.
d. Developing countries are not fairly represented on the Security Council in proportion to the world’s population that they represent.


62.) Which of the following is NOT part of the Economic and Social Council?


a. International Monetary Fund (IMF)
b. World Trade Organization (WTO)
c. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
d. World health Organization


63.) Which two international institutions are considered to be part of the Breton Woods system?


a. The United Nations and the World Trade Organization (WTO)
b. The G-7 and G-20
c. The World Trade Organization (WTO) and the World Bank
d. The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF)


64.) Adding 12% tax to all imported foreign cars is an example of what kind of tax?


a. Luxury tax
b. Import tariff
c. Export tariff
d. Sales tax




65.) Imposing a requirement that all imported products are made using 100% renewable energy is an example of what kind of policy that is unfriendly to trade?


a. Import tariff
b. Sustainable development
c. Non-tariff barrier
d. Clean energy policy


Section N


66.) In the assigned readings, what was Stanley Fischer referring to as “the ongoing process of greater economic interdependence among countries?”


a. Foreign direct investment
b. Trade liberalization
c. Free trade agreements
d. Globalization


67.) The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was replaced by what organization in 1994-1995?


a. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
b. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
c. European Coal and Steel Community
d. World Trade Organization (WTO)


68.) The U.S., China, and Brazil are all members of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Hypothetically, the U.S. grants an extra-low tariff on imported shoes produced in China. Brazil then argues that it is also entitled to the same extra-low tariff on shoes that China is receiving from the U.S. This is an example of what principle?


a. Trade equality
b. Most-favored nation (MFN)
c. Free trade agreement
d. National treatment


69.) What does the term “trade liberalization” refer to?


a. When the Democratic Party in the U.S. controls trade policy
b. The reduction or elimination of tariffs and non-tariff barriers on goods and services
c. Bilateral trade agreements between only two countries
d. Multilateral trade agreements, such as those negotiated at the World Trade Organization (WTO)


70.) What is the governing body of the World Trade Organization (WTO) called?


a. Security Council
b. Board of Directors
c. Governing Board
d. None of the above; there is no governing body of the World Trade Organization.


Section O


71.) Which of the following is an example of “beggar-thy-neighbor?”


a. Smoot-Hawley Act
b. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
c. European Union
d. Foreign Direct Investment


72.) Which of the following is NOT a common reason for a country to join the World Trade Organization (WTO)?


a. Entry to the WTO usually takes less than 6 months.
b. The WTO has a well-defined dispute settlement procedure.
c. The WTO provides a forum for trade negotiations between states.
d. In the WTO, the most-favored nation status is universally applied with only strict exceptions.


73.) Import substitution is a policy recommendation which came out of which theory of economic development?


a. Dependency theory
b. Neoclassical theory
c. Realism
d. Linear stages of growth


74.) In your assigned readings, Catherine Pattillo, et al., discover what kind of relationship between external debt and growth?

Choose one answer.

a. A linearly positive relationship; more debt correlates with more growth, because the debt is used to finance investments and industrialization.
b. A linearly negative relationship; many countries do not have the economic infrastructure to manage both debt repayments and economic growth.
c. Neither a positive nor negative relationship; there was no evidence of any statistical correlation.
d. An inverted U-shaped curve; external debt correlates positively with growth, but then at a certain point, debt begins to correlate negatively with growth.



75.) International maritime organizations often set fishing quotas with the hope of keeping a minimum level of fish stock in the oceans that will continue to reproduce and provide more fish in the future. This is an example of what concept?


a. Central planning economics
b. Tragedy of the commons
c. Sustainable development
d. Structuralism


Section P


76.) International relief agencies must compete for contracts; what is the result?


a. Maximization of donor funds
b. Efficiency and effectiveness
c. Aid diversions and project failures
d. A decrease in the number of competing INGOs and IOs


77.) State A is a poor, developing country. Its government concludes that heavy government regulation and centralization of the economy has stifled economic growth, and it decides to privatize government-owned enterprises, promote free trade, and reduce or remove government regulations. Which theory of economic development are these actions most closely aligned with?


a. Neoclassical theory
b. Linear model
c. Structuralism
d. Neo-Marxism

78.) Which of the following accurately characterizes the global civil society?

Choose one answer.

a. Transnational groups who coordinate their relief efforts to maximize their liberal agendas
b. Transnational groups who compete for relief contracts leading to opportunism
c. Groups who receive long term contracts to address problems of refugees or POWs where ever they may occur
d. Transnational groups who are trained and financed by the UN to address problems of refugees or POWs where ever they may occur


79.) Which of the following is one of the four theories of economic development covered by Ricardo Contreras?


a. Structuralism
b. Neo-Marxism
c. Linear model
d. All of the above



80.) You live near a public park with beautiful wildflowers. Everyone in the neighborhood has a right to enjoy the park and pick flowers. One day, someone realizes that they can pick the flowers and sell them for profit, because it costs nothing to grow the flowers. Soon everyone starts picking the flowers to sell for themselves. Eventually, the park’s flower beds are completely destroyed. This is an example of what phenomenon?

Choose one answer.

a. Free market economics
b. Sustainable development
c. Tragedy of the commons
d. Capitalism


Section Q

81.) States A and B are high volume trade partners. They decide that they need to set up a joint bureaucracy to assist with trade growth. This then leads to increased cooperation in other areas of the economy, such as aid assistance and foreign investment. This type of chain reaction is an example of what concept from neo-functionalist theory?


a. Spillover effect
b. Bureaucratic evolution
c. Economic integration
d. Collective economics


82.) The perceived lack of direct influence of citizens on the institutions of the European Union is referred to as what?


a. Structural inequality
b. Institutional inertia
c. Democratic deficit
d. Proportional representation


83.) The term “euro zone” is often used to describe what?


a. European Economic Community
b. Countries that have adopted the Euro currency
c. European Union
d. Continental Europe


84.) What is the difference between the European Council and the Council of the European Union?


a. The European Council has no law making authority; the Council of the European Union does have law making authority.
b. The Council of the European Union has no law making authority; the European Council does have law making authority.
c. The Council of the European Union is made up of the heads of state of the EU countries; the European Council is not.
d. The Council of the European Union is elected; the European Council is not.


85.) What was the ultimate purpose of setting up the original European Coal and Steel Community?


a. Generate industrialization and economic recovery of Europe after World War II
b. Create a market for U.S. manufactured goods
c. Create peace in Europe through economic and political integration
d. Generate raw materials for the U.S. economy



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