Chapter Enlightenment And American War Of Independent

Chapter Enlightenment And American War Of Independent

Chapter Enlightenment And American War Of Independent

Enlightenment And American War Of Independent

Britain ‘s 13 North American colonies matured during the 1700s. They grew in population, economic strength, and cultural attainment. Yet it was not until 170 years after the founding of the first permanent settlement at Jamestown, Virginia, that the new United States of America emerged as a nation.

Role of Spain and France

Decisive help came in 1778, when France recognized the United States and signed a bilateral defense treaty. French government decided to support Americans in the war against British.  Spain officially entered was in 1779 and supported Americans

Role of Blacks

The blacks were the slaves of British master and they were also the once who were suffering from the hands of British. George Washington asked for their help in war and promised them to be freed after the victory. Approximately 5000 black supported America in the war.


Mercantilism is economic nationalism for the purpose of building a wealthy and powerful state. Adam smith coined the term “Mercantile system” to describe the system of political economy that enriched the country by restraining imports and encouraging exports. The goal was to achieve a “favorable” balance of trade that would bring gold and silver into the country, and maintain domestic employment.

According to this theory ―the colonies only existed for the benefit of their mother countries. Mercantilism was a cause of frequent Europeans wars during 16th to 18th century and some schools of thought even suggest that mercantilism was one of the supreme causes which led the colonies to fight for their independence. Few important acts passed in mercantilism are as follow

  • Navigation Act of 1651

This act stated that all the goods that were carried to England will now only be carried in British owned ships.

  • Enumerated Act of 1660

This act imposed ban on the colonies export. Now the commodities such as sugar, cotton, tobacco and dyes were only to be exported to either England or its colonies only.

  • Staple Act of 1663

These act provided that all the European exports to American colonies must be brought to English port and be reshipped after the payment of duty.

  • Duty Act of 1673

This act aim at the enforcement of all earlier acts through the services of custom collectors

  • Enforcement Act of 1696

This act provided strict measures for checking smuggling and all the colonial ship were now necessarily to be registered in England.

  • Molasses Act 1733

This Act imposed ban on the import of French West Indian molasses into the English colonies.

  • The Sugar Act of 1764

The Sugar Act of 1764 placed taxes on luxury goods, including coffee, silk, and wine, and made import of rum illegal.

  • The Currency Act of 1764

The Currency Act of 1764 prohibited the printing of paper money in the colonies.

  • The Quartering Act of 1765

The Quartering Act of 1765 forced colonists to provide food and housing for royal troops.

  • The Stamp Act of 1765

The Stamp Act of 1765 required the purchase of royal stamps for all legal documents, newspapers, licenses, and leases. Colonists objected to all these measures, but the Stamp Act sparked the greatest organized resistance.

Other Causes of War of Independence

  1. Letters of Samuel Adams

Samuel Adams of Massachusetts was the most effective and influential person. He wrote newspaper articles, made speeches and wrote letters to the politicians and influential persons appealing to the colonists‘ democratic instincts. He helped organize committees throughout the colonies that became the basis of a revolutionary movement

  1. French Indian War

War between Britain and France in 1754-1763 was fought partly in North America. Britain was victorious and soon initiated policies designed to control and fund its vast empire. These measures imposed greater restraints on the American colonists‘ way of life.

  1. Royal Proclamation of 1763

The Royal Proclamation of 1763 restricted the opening of new lands for settlement. This also prohibited the westward expansion of colonies toward Appalachian Mountains.

  1. The Coercive Act/ Intolerable Act

Certain acts were passed, banning the manufacturing of goods in colonies;

  • The Hat Act
  • Iron Act
  • Woolen Act
  1. Self-Government

Self-government produced local political leaders, and these were the men who worked together to defeat what they considered to be oppressive acts of Parliament. After they succeeded, their coordinated campaign against Britain ended. Their goal was not accommodation, but independence.

  1. Great Awakening

This religious movement was started by Jonathan Edward in 1730 to 1740 which laid stress on unity of the 13 colonies.

  1. Boston Tea Party

British government impose ban on production of tea in the 13 colonies and impose the 3rd tax on tea and forced the colonies to buy 17 million pounds of unsold tea of British East India Company to overcome the losses.

  1. British Action on Massachusetts

In December, a group of men sneaked into to three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped their cargo of tea overboard. To punish Massachusetts for the vandalism, the British Parliament closed the port of Boston and restricted local authority.

  1. 1st Continental Conference

All the colonies except Georgia sent representatives to Philadelphia in September 1774 to discuss their ―present unhappy state and draw their future policy against the atrocities of the British imperial power.

  1. 2nd Continental Conference

The Congress met on May 10, 1776, in the State House in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The Second Continental Congress decided many important things.

  • Completely break away from Great Britain.
  • Officially put the colonies in a state of defense.
  • Form an army called the American Continental Army.
  • Congress officially appointed George Washington as commander-in-chief of the army.
  • Decided to print paper money.

The Second Continental Congress, one of the most important government meetings in the history of the United States of America. It decided some of the most important ideas that the colonists fought for in the Revolutionary War, because, at that meeting, members of the Second Continental Congress wrote and signed The Declaration of Independence.

  1. Declaration of Independence

The Second Continental Congress appointed a committee, headed by Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, to prepare a document outlining the colonies‘ grievances against the king and explaining their decision to break away. This Declaration of Independence was adopted on July 4, 1776. The 4th of July has since been celebrated as America’s Independence Day.

  1. Common Sense by Thomas

Paine Thomas Paine crystallizes the argument for separation in a pamphlet called Common Sense, which sold 100,000 copies. Paine discussed two main points in his pamphlet: Independence as the will of people and Revolution as the device of liberty and happiness

  1. Sons of Liberty

Sons of Liberty was a political organization which opposed the stamp act and marched out on the streets shouting Liberty, Property and No Stamp.

  1. Boston Massacre

2nd march 1970, a large crowd gathered and protested against the government. The soldiers opened fire on the crowd which resulted in death of three and many were injured. This incidence created a sense of ill felling and hatred towards the British Government.

  1. The Treaty of Paris

The Treaty of Paris acknowledged the independence, freedom, and sovereignty of the 13 former American colonies, now states. The boundaries of 13 colonies were set and the issue of access to the Mississippi river was settled between Great Britain and America. This treaty also removed any chance of war with France.

Problems in Formation of National Government

The 13 American colonies became the 13 United States of America in 1783, following their war for independence from Britain. Before the war ended, they ratified a framework for their common efforts. These Articles of Confederation provided for a union, but an extremely loose and fragile one. George Washington called it a “rope of sand.”

  • There is No Constitution
  • No common currency;
  • No national military force;
  • Little centralized control over foreign policy
  • No national system for imposing and collecting taxes.
  • Differences between Federalist and Anti-federalist.
  • Foreign Policy
  • Economic Weakness
  • Slavery
  • Powers and election of president

Federalist vs. Anti Federalist


  • Strong Federation
  • Representation according to
  • Population
  • No need of Bill of Rights
  • Wanted to Ratify the Constitution
  • Property and land should be
  • managed by aristocrats

Anti Federalist 

  • Strong States
  • Equal Representation
  • In favor of Bill of Rights
  • Opposed Constitution because
  • wanted more powers for state
  • Equal distribution of wealth

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  27. This is a little off topic and all over the place, but I can’t help but think about it as I go down the literature stuff here.I graduated high school last year. I think much of how people (at least students) feel about classics is the fault of incompetent, unenthusiastic teachers and an illogical curriculum. You can’t blame students for not being interested in any subject if it is poorly taught, and doesn’t seem relevant to everyday life. It’s up to the teacher to justify interest in something completely foreign to a student’s every experience.I wondered why I read certain books for English. Most of my classmates probably felt the same way. English differs from all other major courses in that there isn’t a standard curriculum. In every math and science class, you are taught the same thing in the same order. The same goes for humanities classes in history and language. English is the only one that doesn’t follow a regular format.When I was in high school, No Child Left Behind hadn’t come into effect, so I don’t know how it is now. There was no clear cut purpose, so there weren’t any clear results. Some students with personal skill, talent, or inclination did well; others managed to improve. Most performed at the same acceptable level throughout. I got better and then worse. Here are some of the inconsistencies and other problems:–I had a grammar book in 9th grade, but I never used it. I didn’t learn grammar until 10th grade, and then there was no grammar in 11th and 12th.–Each year we had to write essays. In 9th grade, my class did a diagnostic. The teacher said that one student wrote a better essay, which unfortunately wasn’t that good. You’d think we would learn something that would bring us all up to the same page during the year, that she would do something with us so our writing couldn’t be insulted like that the next year. Essays just kept coming all four years, with minimal instruction on how to write, and nothing new on writing one year to the next.–We read books, and the school handbook lists certain books that have to be read by all students for each grade. In 9th grade a Shakespeare play had to be taught, either Julius Caesar or some other one. A same year friend at another school was reading Romeo and Juliet. We read that in 11th grade. By the time I graduated, I didn’t find there to be any system to why books were required for a particular year, or why a teacher chose the remaining books. It didn’t seem critical how many we read and what we read, the way that learning about the Civil War in American history, or mitosis in biology is a critical part of the course. I know it’s obvious that works read for English will vary, but if out of all the books that could be taught, these are chosen, teachers and administrators ought to be able to readily give explanations for the choices. I’ve read some books since high school that made me wonder why these weren’t assigned. I would have preferred more Camus and Dostoevsky to English authors like Chaucer, Shakespeare, George Eliot, and Brontes.–On top of the arbitrary selection, when we read books it was usually under the framework of work in the form of notes, questions, characters–that is, plot details, fictitious facts. When this is what classics are boiled down to, and this is treated as what matters and what we ought to get out of a book, it makes sense for students not to see books as more than a chore, and not to appreciate the book outside the details. So while every student has some book they like, despite all the teaching, they don’t get much out of all the other books, and they aren’t very informed about them.–Each year has some pointless theme. Most people don’t pay attention to this.–Each summer has required reading. Who knows what point this had? These are novels about other cultures, and we never discuss them after the first week, when there’s a test on them.–Poetry was very badly taught. I never really knew why some of it existed, and sometimes I wondered why it was ever brought up. In 9th grade we did some poetry presentations. I couldn’t understand and didn’t really like Robert Browning, but I had to research him on my own. I don’t think many other students fared better, depending on their poet. In 12th grade, we had poems throughout the year. I didn’t like any of them. There are two poems I remember liking.–When I told teachers that I couldn’t see why a book was a classic they just didn’t have an explanation for me. On top of that, they were ignorant themselves about context of works they taught and maybe the books themselves, they didn’t always seem to like or have an interest in the books, or their interest was incomprehensible to the students. By the end of high school, there were books I liked, but I didn’t have much to say about them. Most books I just didn’t think were that great, and while I didn’t hate them, a lot of times I felt they were a waste of my time.I’ll go into some examples of some classics we did.To Kill a Mockingbird was the first book with a classic reputation I really couldn’t understand. I asked the teacher, and she didn’t have an explanation for me. I asked a classmate why did this book deserve to win the Pulitzer Prize, and he said, “Maybe all the other books that year were really bad.” I hadn’t made up my mind to dismiss the book, but I just didn’t understand why it was considered great. You might say I was ignorant, I was just a 9th grader then.I don’t think I misunderstood it by that much. If I reread it today, I might have a better feel of the intended perspective of a little girl, the Boo Radley allegory might be more striking. My teacher made no attempt to emphasize these and other literary qualities. She didn’t know about the Scottsboro case that the book reminded me of. And later on, when I read A Passage to India, another less well known classic, I noticed it seemed similar to Mockingbird in its basic plot, but I doubted my 9th grade teacher knew about that book.In 11th grade I had my worst English teacher for an “honors” section. It was his incompetence that made me take a second look at everything in school, including the selection of books. When we had to read Song of Solomon by Toni Morrison, most of the class that read The Bluest Eye the year before was groaning and complaining. He told us what people on this site are saying, that we shouldn’t just dismiss a book we don’t like if it’s a classic and has all this acclaim. He taught it terribly, doing nothing to convince the students that didn’t like Morrison that the book was worthwhile. In the middle of teaching it, he spent over a month teaching for a state standardized test. I don’t think other teachers did the same.In the same year, we had to read The Great Gatsby. I didn’t understand some of the book, but I kind of liked it-what would you say to this uninformed but positive opinion?–but others didn’t. I think for this book, the teacher said that he didn’t like it when he read it for high school himself, but he liked it when he came back to it as an adult. That was all he had to say, a completely useless statement, unsupported by any evidence of personal interest. I remember we had a list of characters and terms to write down, and some question sheets.The year before, a substitute teacher said she learned ancient Greek to read the Iliad. I think she also told us that some literature we have to learn to appreciate over time.In 12th grade, we were told that Metamorphosis was required throughout the school district. He commented it must have been interesting in the room where they made this decision. The teacher had disappointingly little to say beyond that.

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